Ribitol phosphate and therapeutic strategy of muscular dystrophy

Motoi Kanagawa

last updated 2022/10/03 (Glycoforum. 2022 Vol.25 (5), A14)  

Ribitol phosphate is a sugar alcohol phosphate, which is known as a component of teichoic acid in bacterial cell walls. In 2016, ribitol phosphate was found in vertebrate cells as a sugar chain component of dystroglycan. At the same time, a group of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of ribitol phosphate was also identified, and mutations in the genes encoding these enzymes are responsible for several types of muscular dystrophy. As the mechanism of ribitol phosphate modification is revealed, the development of therapies for ribitol phosphate-defective muscular dystrophy is heating up. This article describes the history of ribitol phosphate discovery and the therapeutic strategies currently proposed. ...and more

Anti-inflammatory activity of galactosylated, nonfucosylated intravenous immunoglobulin

Yusuke Mimura

last updated 2022/08/01 (Glycoforum. 2022 Vol.25 (4), A11)  

IgG activates FcγRs and the complement system while intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) consisting of plasma IgG exerts anti-inflammatory effects in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Although IVIG has been used for >40 years as a treatment option for certain autoimmune disorders, its mechanism of action (MOA) remains unsolved. Recently developed chemo-enzymatic glycoengineering approach allows for remodeling of the Fc glycans of polyclonal IgG. We prepared fucosylated or nonfucosylated plasma IgG glycoforms having 2 sialic acids, 2 galactose, or 0 galactose at the nonreducing ends of the Fc glycans to investigate their anti-inflammatory activity. We have demonstrated that the galactosylated, nonfucosylated [(G2)2] glycoform has the highest affinity for FcγRIIIa and potency to inhibit antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity of immune cells. As the (G2)2 glycoform is a component of IVIG, glycoengineered IVIG consisting of the (G2)2 glycoform alone may be a potential next-generation antibody drug. This review outlines our current understanding of the role of IgG-Fc glycan in MOA of IVIG. ...and more

Medical Applications of SKM9-2, an Antibody That Recognizes Glycopeptides

Shoutaro Tsuji

last updated 2022/04/01 (Glycoforum. 2022 Vol.25 (2), A5)  

The use of antibody drugs has been spreading rapidly because of their excellent pharmacological effects and the recent advances in antibody humanization technology and biologic production technology. Currently, a large number of antibody drugs are being marketed as block busters; as such, antibody drugs may be described as occupying an established position in the pharmaceutical industry. On the other hand, suitable targets for disease-specific treatments are increasingly being depleted; a key step in antibody drug development is the discovery of new-generation target antigens.
We are working on discovering specific cancer antigens for malignant mesothelioma, an intractable cancer. Mesothelioma has long been an “indistinct” cancer as it lacks good cancer markers and hence is quite difficult to diagnose pathologically. Recognizing a new protein antigen encompassing a “glycopeptide region with mesothelioma-specific glycosylation,” our anti-mesothelioma antibody is highly promising as a new antibody drug seed expected to contribute to the diagnosis and treatment of mesothelioma, and as a drug discovery seed for targeting glycans. This article provides a historical overview of the research and development, and future prospects for clinical application of this antibody. ...and more

Chemical Insertion of Glycan Extends the Scope of Homogeneous Glycoprotein Synthesis

Kota Nomura

last updated 2022/02/01 (Glycoforum. 2022 Vol.25 (1), A2)  

To understand the biological processes mediated by various glycoforms of glycoproteins, the preparation of homogeneous glycoproteins is essential for performing extensive biological experiments. Recently we found that diacyl disulfide coupling (DDC) between glycosyl asparagine and peptide yielded glycopeptides chemoselectively. DDC enabled us to develop a new glycoprotein synthesis method, “the chemical glycan insertion strategy,” which can insert glycosyl asparagine between the N- and C- termini of two unprotected peptides. In our design concept, fewer steps are needed to generate glycoproteins. Herein, I will introduce the latest strategy of glycoproteins synthesis by chemical insertion. ...and more

Is the 3-O-sulfated structure of heparan sulfate key to elucidating the structure-function relationship?

Hideo Mochizuki

last updated 2021/12/01 (Glycoforum. 2021 Vol.24 (6), A17)  

Heparan sulfate (HS) is present as a component of proteoglycans on cell surfaces and in the extracellular matrix in most animal species including Hydra, Caenorhabditis, Drosophila, and humans. HS chains are structurally heterogeneous, being composed of densely sulfated regions, or sulfated domains, connected by mostly nonsulfated and N-acetyl-rich regions. HS regulates various physiological processes by the interaction with numerous proteins such as growth factors, morphogens, cytokines, enzymes, and extracellular matrix proteins. The binding specificity of HS for each functional protein is thought to be dependent on the structure of the sulfated domain. ...and more

Mechanisms of atherosclerosis onset and progression mediated by vascular wall chondroitin sulfate chain elongation

Noriaki Emoto

last updated 2021/10/01 (Glycoforum. 2021 Vol.24 (5), A15)  

Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases such as myocardial and cerebral infarction are caused by atherosclerotic disease1. Atherosclerotic diseases are the cause of approximately 25% of deaths in Japan, and constitute a major threat to the Japanese population, so there is a very high societal demand for these diseases to be defeated.
Treatment of atherosclerosis has previously focused on controlling the risk factors for cardiovascular disease development, represented by hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, etc. Various risk factors are in fact increasingly controllable with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, statins, etc. However, taking into consideration the continuing increase in the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, there is an urgent need to establish new treatment strategies.
The response-to-retention hypothesis has been put forward for the mechanisms of onset and progression of atherosclerosis, and has been given considerable attention2,3. Accumulation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and other lipids in vascular walls is considered to be a starting point for onset of early-stage arteriosclerosis, and it has recently been suggested that the structures of chondroitin sulfate chains in the tunica intima are connected to that accumulation, with the length of the chains being particularly closely connected4.
The present authors have put forward the following hypothesis: “Accumulation of lipids can be reduced by modifying the lengths of chondroitin sulfate chains, enabling prevention of or recovery from atherosclerosis”. Studies have since been performed to test this hypothesis, and the results are summarized here. ...and more

Glycan Dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Revealed by Molecular Simulations

Takaharu Mori / Yuji Sugita

last updated 2021/08/01 (Glycoforum. 2021 Vol.24 (4), A12)  

The recent COVID-19 pandemic is caused by a new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, whose spike protein on its surface binds to human cells via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors in the initial stage of infection. In that process, the structure of the spike protein changes from a “down-form” to an “up-form”, as demonstrated by cryo-electron microscopy. Biochemical experiments have shown that the surface of the spike protein is modified by many glycans. Glycans have been considered to play a role in protection against antibodies, i.e., immune evasion; however, how they contribute to the structural changes of the spike protein remains unclear. In this paper, we describe the role of glycans as elucidated by molecular dynamics simulation of the spike protein. ...and more

Development of a Highly Functionalized Lactoferrin That Controls Nerve Function: Fusion of Glycan-Binding Ability and Neuroprotective Function

Masao Nakamura

last updated 2021/06/01 (Glycoforum. 2021 Vol.24 (3), A8)  

Lactoferrin (LF) is a glycosaminoglycan-binding protein that functions in innate immunity, and it is expected to be useful as a biopharmaceutical product due to its effects on the body. We aim to develop novel therapeutic agents that can promote effective recovery from spinal cord injuries. Through our recent research, we discovered that LF binds to chondroitin sulfate E (CS-E), inhibiting nerve axon outgrowth and neutralizing its toxicity. We have also developed a highly functionalized neuroprotective molecule consisting of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) linked to LF. This paper introduces this highly functionalized LF and discusses its glycan-binding and neuroprotective properties. ...and more

The branched structure and properties of starch - determined from studies on branching enzymes

Ryuichiro Suzuki / Eiji Suzuki

last updated 2021/06/01 (Glycoforum. 2021 Vol.24 (3), A7)  

Starch, a polysaccharide composed of glucose molecules, is formed during photosynthesis by Archaeplastida and is found in staple food crops such as cereals, tubers, and beans. Starch is utilized not just for food and food additive purposes but also for industrial purposes, e.g., in the manufacture of glues and bioplastics. Starch consists of amylose and amylopectin. The primary constituent amylopectin has an orderly branched structure and its structure has an effect on the taste and physicochemical properties of starch. Starch synthase, branching enzyme, and debranching enzyme are involved in amylopectin biosynthesis, but the mechanism controlling the assembly of highly ordered structures remains to be elucidated. Understanding the mechanisms controlling amylopectin’s structure opens up the possibility of designing an amylopectin with a favorable structure and properties. The authors have clarified the mechanism controlling the length of branched chains formed by branching enzymes. In this article, we describe the problems that need to be solved in order to control the structure and properties of amylopectin and recent progress in studies on branching enzymes. The production of structure-controlled amylopectins contributes to the development of our nation by raising the level of its food self-sufficiency and helping it reach the goal of a decarbonized society. ...and more

Chemical Synthesis of Small Cyclodextrins Utilizing Bridged Pyranose Ring

Shinnosuke Wakamori

last updated 2021/04/01 (Glycoforum. 2021 Vol.24 (2), A5)  

Cyclodextrins (CDs) are cyclic oligomers of α-1,4-D-glucopyranoside. Because the central cavities of CDs can be used to encapsulate small molecules, cyclic hexamer to octamer (CD6–8) have been widely used. While CD-hundreds are known for large CDs, the synthesis of the only CD5 had been only one reported for small CDs. Smaller CDs, such as CD4 and CD3, have never been synthesized because their molecular sizes are too small for the pyranose ring to adopt a stable chair-type conformation. In this report, we describe the chemical synthesis of both CD4 and CD3. The development of a specific bridging group between the 3- and 6-oxygen positions (O-3 and O-6) of D-glucose led to the successful synthesis of these compounds. In other words, the adoption of this bridging group provides both the stereoselective glycosylation reaction and the supple conformation of the pyranose ring, which are required for the synthesis of CD4 and CD3. ...and more

Cellulose Synthase: A Molecule Machinery for Structural Control of Polymers in Aqueous Solvents at Ambient Temperature and Pressure

Tomoya Imai

last updated 2021/04/01 (Glycoforum. 2021 Vol.24 (2), A4)  

Cellulose is a natural polysaccharide, and is functionally classified as a structural polysaccharide. Its superior strength is attributed to the fact that it is composed of multiple molecular chains, and it has a structure known as cellulose I crystal that exhibits a high crystalline modulus. The fact that such an agglomeration of polymers can be synthesized by enzymatic proteins suggests that cellulose biosynthesis is a mechanism designed to synthesize the strongest possible structure by controlling the polymer chains at ambient temperature and pressure in aqueous solvents. In comparison with the typical formation process for general-purpose polymers, which involves high temperature, high pressure, and harsh solvents, the enzyme cellulose synthase possesses an extremely sophisticated “green” mechanism for controlling polymer structure.
In this paper, I will describe efforts to reconstitute the cellulose-synthesizing activity of cellulose synthase, the mechanism of which we have been seeking to elucidate for more than 10 years. ...and more

Glycan-hydrolyzing enzymes link plants

Ken-ichi Kurotani / Michitaka Notaguchi

last updated 2021/02/01 (Glycoforum. 2021 Vol.24 (1), A2)  

Grafting is a technique for cultivating plants that combines the advantages of two different plant species, and it has been used as an agricultural technique since ancient times. The cell wall surrounding the plant cell is an extracellular matrix composed of multiple polysaccharides, the composition of which depends on the plant species. Grafting is thought to occur when the cell walls of two grafted plants are reconstituted at their boundaries, resulting in cell or tissue adhesion. In this article, we will introduce the mechanism of artificial plant grafting and the similarity between grafting in nature and grafting in plants, focusing on the function of digestive enzymes of cellulose, the main component of cell walls. ...and more

Frontal affinity chromatography: A champion method to study informational glycans(Glycoforum. 2020 Vol.23 (2), A7)
Kenichi Kasai
A saccharide primer method as a novel tool for glycomics(Glycoforum. 2020 Vol.23 (1), A3)
Toshinori Sato
Functional regulation of glucose assimilation by N-glycan-binding activities of pancreatic α-amylase(2019 Vol.22 (4), A11)
Kimie Date
Insights into the key roles of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in cancer biology(2019 Vol.22 (3), A8)
Satomi Nadanaka / Hiroshi Kitagawa
Synthetic development of keratan sulfate-related ligand of C-type lectin Langerin, and its anti-inflammatory effects(2019 Vol.22 (1), A3)
Yasuhiko Kizuka / Naoyuki Taniguchi